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Evaluation Rules

Input is read sequentially and interpreted according to the rules of the current mode. All input text is first matched against the specified comment/string start sequences of the current mode (except those which are disabled by the 'i' modifier), unless the body being evaluated is the contents of a comment/string whose modifier enables macro evaluation. The most recently defined comment/string specifications are checked for first. Important note: comments may not appear between the name of a macro and its arguments (doing so results in undefined behavior).

Anything that is not a comment/string is then matched against a possible meta-macro call, and if that fails too, against a possible user-macro call. All remaining text undergoes substitution of argument reference sequences by the relevant argument text (empty unless the body being evaluated is the definition of a user macro) and removal of the quote character if there is one.

Note that meta-macro arguments are passed to the meta-macro prior to any evaluation (although the meta-macro may choose to evaluate them, see meta-macro descriptions below). In the case of the #mode meta-macro, gpp temporarily adds a comment/string specification to enable recognition of C strings ("...") and prevent any evaluation inside them, so no interference of the characters being put in the C string arguments to #mode with the current syntax is to be feared.

On the other hand, the arguments to a user macro are systematically evaluated, and then passed as context parameters to the macro definition body, which gets evaluated with that environment. The only exception is when the macro definition is empty, in which case its arguments are not evaluated. Note that gpp temporarily switches back to the mode in which the macro was defined in order to evaluate it: so it is perfectly safe to change the operating mode between the time when a macro is defined and the time when it is called. Conversely, if a user macro wishes to work with the current mode instead of the one that was used to define it it needs to start with a #mode restore call and end with a #mode save call.

A user macro may be defined with named arguments (see #define description below). In that case, when the macro definition is being evaluated, each named parameter causes a temporary virtual user-macro definition to be created; such a macro may only be called without arguments and simply returns the text of the corresponding argument.

Note that, since macros are evaluated when they are called rather than when they are defined, any attempt to call a recursive macro causes undefined behavior except in the very specific case when the macro uses #undef to erase itself after finitely many loop iterations.

Finally, a special case occurs when a user macro whose definition does not involve any arguments (neither named arguments nor the argument reference sequence) is called in a mode where the short user-macro end sequence is empty (e.g. cpp or TeX mode). In that case it is assumed to be an alias macro: its arguments are first evaluated in the current mode as usual, but instead of being passed to the macro definition as parameters (which would cause them to be discarded) they are actually appended to the macro definition, using the syntax rules of the mode in which the macro was defined, and the resulting text is evaluated again. It is therefore important to note that, in the case of a macro alias, the arguments actually get evaluated twice in two potentially different modes.

next up previous contents index
Next: Meta-macros Up: GPP - Generic Preprocessor Previous: Syntax Specification   Contents   Index
Baoqiu Cui