Errata List for "The Data Science Design Manual" by Steven Skiena
Last addition: June 24, 2018
Non-trivial errata are denoted with a (*). I thank Prof. Robert Piche
of the Tampere University of Technology for a particularly extensive list of
corrections.
=============================================================
Page vi reducto -> reductio
Page 1 comes challenges -> come challenges
Page 1 have lead -> have led
Page 3 There exist an important class -> There exists an important class
Page 7 zero to ten stars scale -> one to ten starts scale
Page 12, line 10: "FOA" should be "FOIA"
Page 15, line 11: "characters" may be better written as "options".
Page 16, line 10: (age and martial status) should be (age and marital status).
Page 26 each face baring -> each face bearing
Page 28, 83, 198, 208, 229, 230, 257, 261, 279, 360, 361, 400, 403, 413 alternate -> alternative
Page 29 a French nobleman -> a French writer [“chevalier de Méré” was the pseudonym of Antoine Gombaud, who was not a nobleman]
Page 31, 32, 150, 153, 354, 356 Bayes theorem -> Bayes’ theorem
(*) Page 31, line -12: P(B) = 8/36, not 9/36. This error propagates through
the next two corrections.
(*) Page 31, line -11: Should be $P(A)=27/36$ and $P(B|A) = 8/27$.
(*) Page 31 ,line -1: Should be $P(B|A)= (1 \cdot 8/36)/(27/36) = 8/27$.
(*) Page 32, Figure 2.2: The CDF's jumps should occur at integer-valued abscissas.
(*) Page 33 always get higher -> can only get higher
(*) Page 33, line -7: The equation for $P(k = X)$ should be:
$P(k=X) = C'(k) = C(X \leq k ) - C(X \leq k - \delta)$
Page 36, 109, 128, 287, 400 Alternately -> Alternatively
Page 37 there is no real phenomena -> there are no real phenomena
Page 40 degree to which $Y$ is a function of $X$ -> degree to which $Y$ is a linear function of $X$
Page 40 social economic status -> socioeconomic status
Page 43 $R^2$ -> $r^2$
Page 45 $V(Y)$ -> $V(y)$
Page 45, line 13: In the formula 1-r^2 = V(r)/V(y), the variable r is being used for two different things. The first one is r-square and the second one is residual error.
Page 49 does terrible -> does terribly
Page 58 statistical methods, which -> statistical methods which
Page 62 LaTex -> LaTeX
Page 65: "The Freedom of Information Act (FOI) enables" should be "The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) enables"
(*) Page 79 exponentially with $k$ -> exponentially with $k^2$
Page 82, line 12: "then wrote then wrote" should be "then wrote"
(*) Page 82, line 14: Delete the sentence:
"The median score among my students was closer than any single guess".
First it was meant to read "any other guess". But actually 2350 is closer.
(*) Page 101, line -9: "92.5th percentile" should be "97.7th percentile"
(*) Page 103 unlikely to not make -> unlikely to make
Page 115 y and z, prefer -> y and z prefer
Page 116 Issac -> Isaac
Page 118 a through introduction -> a thorough introduction
Page 119 et. al. -> et al.
Page 119, problem 4-1: "Suppose we observe X = 5.08." X should be lower case italic x
Page 121, 205, 289, 297, 299, 300, 435: Baysian -> Bayesian
Page 122 on the look out -> on the lookout
(*) Page 124 the most likely number of failures will be zero -> the most likely number of failures will be one [ Prob(#fail=0)=0.3677, Prob(#fail=1)= 0.3681]
Page 124 the number of hits per season are drawn -> the number of hits per season is drawn
Page 124, 125, 139, 373, 406 phenomenon -> phenomena
Page 125 are free to arbitrary real numbers -> are free to be arbitrary real numbers
Page 127 the average value of the distribution -> the mean of the distribution
(*) Page 128, line -2, $\lambda$ should be $\mu$.
Page 132 -- inequality of the world -> inequities of the world
Page 132, Section 5.2 Line 2: "it is pays" should be "it pays"
(*) Page 132, last line, The equation for $P(k = X)$ should be:
$P(k=X) = C'(k) = C(X \leq k ) - C(X \leq k - \delta)$
Page 134 Monte Carlo sampling -> acceptance-rejection sampling
Page 136 $1,000 bucks -> 1,000 bucks
(*) Page 137, line 15: The order of effect sizes is reversed: it should
be "small effects 85\% overlap, medium effects 67\% overlap, and large effects 53\% overlap".
Page 138 weighted 166.2 pounds -> weighed 166.2 pounds
Page 138 if I what I observed -> if what I observed
Page 138 The number of samples are large enough -> The number of samples is large enough
(*) Page 144, line 26: (1-.0672) should be (1-.672)
Page 152, line -11:: "person will weight over" should be "person will weigh over"
Page 154 Each of friends -> Each friend
Page 156 changing in the way -> changing the way
Page 160 peak at the dot plots -> peek at the dot plots
Page 172 Thus grouping -> Grouping
Page 176 we are faced -> we are faced with
Page 177 \emph{Oh G-d} -> \emph{Oh G-d!}
Page 185 when each bin a non-trivial number of element -> when each bin has a non-trivial number of elements
Page 187 The cdf is monotonically increasing -> The cdf is monotonically nondecreasing
Page 188 Nobel gases -> noble gases [2 occurrences]
Page 191 to the handle of a single water pump. They changed the handle -> to a single public water pump. The authorities disabled the pump by removing its handle
(*) Page 195 There are few potential downsides -> There are a few potential downsides
Page 195 Knobs and features get added because they can, -> Knobs and features get added because they can be,
Page 197 Stronger friendships -> Stronger associations
Page 200 problems 6-11 - "Describe good practices in data visualization?"
Should end with a period instead of question mark
Page 200, line -9: Problem 6-13: "How would you to determine" should be "How would you determine"
Page 202 a 13th-century theologian -> a 14th-century theologian
Page 203 There are always a range of possible outcomes -> There is always a range of possible outcomes
Page 212 reduce the performance of a model -> reduce the performance assessment of a model
(*) Page 219, line 2: "false positive and false negative rates" should be "true positive and false positive rates"
(**) Page 219, line 3: The true positive rate is just recall, i.e., TP / (TP + FN). The false positive rate is FP / (FP + TN).
(**) Page 219, paragraphs 2 and 3: This is a mess, because I reversed left and left and right..
line 5: the sweep should go from right to left.
line 8: "very left" should be "very right"
line 10: "as far to the right" should be "as far as the left"
line 15: "sweep our threshhold to the right" should be "sweep our threshhold to the left"
Page 220, line -5: "Ours in a hard task" should be "Ours is a hard task"
(*) Page 221, line 3: "none are classified as 1800" should be "almost none (1\%) are classified as 1800"
Page 221, line 14: "Sparse" rows and columns in the confusion matrix refers to raw counts. Figure 7.7 has been normalized so the counts are indeterminable.
Page 222 adding an constant offset -> adding a constant offset
Page 225 Upon taking position of a data set -> Upon taking possession of a data set
Page 225: "Observe the the evaluation" should be "Observe the evaluation"
Page 236 back testing -> backtesting
Page 236, problem 7-16: "following types of betable events"
betable should be spelled bettable
Page 238, line 8: Add last plus to get
$y = c_0 + c_1 x_1 + c_2 x_2 + \cdots + c_{m-1} x_{m-1}$
(*) Page 239, line 6: The left variable of the equation should be $w$, not $c$.
(*) Page 239, line 7: "Ax = b" should be "Aw = b".
Page 243, Figure 8.4 caption: the transposition is in the center, not on the right as printed.
(*) Page 243, line 1: The transpose of a matrix sort of “rotates” it by 180 degrees -> Transposing a matrix flips it about the main diagonal
[ transposition is not a rotation, Lincoln^T parts his hair differently from Lincoln ]
(*) Page 243 The matrix product $X Y^T$ of these two vectors produces a $1 \times 1$ matrix -> The matrix product $X^T Y$ of these two column-vectors produces a $1 \times 1$ matrix
(*) Page 243 $C_{ij}= \sum_{i=1}^k A_{ik}\cdot B_{kj}$ -> $C_{ij}= \sum_{l=1}^k A_{il} B_{lj}$
(*) Page 243 For any pair of non-square matrices A and B, at most one of either AB or BA has compatible dimensions. -> [remove the statement; a counterexample is B=A^T].
(*) Page 244, line 12: Change 4 to 3 in lower-left entry of leftmost matrix:
$$ \Bigg(
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 \\
3 & 4 \\
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 \\
0 & 2 \\
\end{bmatrix}
\Bigg) $$
(*) Page 248-249 We say $A^{−1}$ is the multiplicative inverse of matrix $A$ if $A \cdot A^{−1} = I$ -> We say $A^{−1}$ is the multiplicative inverse of square matrix $A$ if $A A^{−1} = I$, from which it follows that $A^{−1}A=I$.
(*) Page 249 such matrices are not invertible or \emph{singular}, -> such matrices are not invertible, they are \emph{singular},
Page 249 & 264 matricies -> matrices
Page 250 $C \cdot x$ -> $C X$
(*) Page 251 there is not enough information to solve an undetermined system of linear equations -> there is not enough information to determine a unique solution of an undetermined system of linear equations
(*) Page 257 Section 8.5, line 3: $\lambda_i \geq \lambda_{i−i} $ for all $i$ -> $\lambda_i \geq \lambda_{i−1} $ for all $i>1$
(*) Page 259, Section 8.5.1, lines 15 and 16: In both the equation and the
line following, $B_k^T$ should be $B_k$.
(*) Page 259 Should $M$ contain convex numbers -> Should $M$ contain complex numbers
Page 264 8-10 "Ax=b?" Should end with a period instead of question mark
(*) Page 264 Problem 8.17 Show that the eigenvalues of $MM^T$ are the same as that of $M^T M$ -> Show that for any square matrix $M$, the eigenvalues of $MM^T$ are the same as those of $M^T M$
Page 265 What are the size of the numerical residuals -> What are the sizes of the numerical residuals
Page 268 verses -> versus
Page 269 a singular point -> a single point
(*) Page 270 is the projection of $y_i − f(X)$ down to $X$ -> is $y_i-f(x_i)$
(*) Page 271, line 20: In the right hand side of the equation for $w_1$,
the $(sigma_x/sigma_y)$ part should be flipped to $(sigma_y/sigma_x)$.
(*) Page 273 it is a linear function of its non-linear input values -> it is a linear function of the non-linear functions of input values
Page 275, line -4: between 0 and 12 + 4 + 5 = 19 years,
19 --> 21
Page 280 the error function is shaped sort of like a parabola -> the error function is shaped like a parabola
Page 280 has exactly one local minima -> has exactly one local minimum [and many other occurrences where plural “minima” is used in place of singular “minimum” ]
Page 281 maxima or minima -> maximum or minimum
Page 281 & 284 optima -> optimum
(*) Page 283 Figure 9.9 add "t := t+1” inside the loop
(*) Page 283, lines 3,4: there are errors in the equation, which is twice missing partial derivative symbols.
2 --> \342\210\202 ($\partial$)
(*) Page 285, line 9: there are errors in the equation, which is twice missing partial derivative symbols.
2 --> âˆ‚ ($\partial$)
All partial derivatives should not have a 2 in the numerator. The 1/2 factor cancels from the squared error term when differentiating.
(*) Page 287 line 2 w_j^2 -> w_{j-1}^2
(*) Page 287 dependent variables -> independent variables
(*) Page 287 Let $\Gamma$ be our $n \times n$ -> Let $\Gamma$ be our $m \times m$
(*) Page 287 || \lambda \Gamma w ||^2 -> \lambda || \Gamma w ||^2
Page 287 & 288 criteria -> criterion
(*) Page 293 y_i is positive, i.e. y_i=1 -> y_i is negative, i.e. y_i=1
(*) Page 293, line -3: punish it aggressively when $f(y_i) \rightarrow 0$,
$y_i$ --> $x_i$
(*) Page 294, line -1: there is an error in the summation symbol and square bracket.
[ \sum --> \sum [
Page 294 Figure 9.16 caption: positive (blue) and negative (right) -> positive (blue) and negative (red)
Page 301 the apples residual -> the apple's residual
Page 301 the set of variables are -> the set of variables is
(*) Page 308, line 25: 0.03 should be $0.03^2$
Page 311 represents fair dice roll -> represents a fair dice roll
Page 311 does not satisfies -> does not satisfy
(*) Page 317 restricting to vectors instead of points. Recall that sets of d-dimensional vectors can be thought of as points -> restricting to unit-length vectors instead of points. Recall that d-dimensional unit-length vectors can be thought of as points
Page 318 ”Thus we can compute the exact probability…” : change all instances of “plane” to “line” in this paragraph
Page 319 in a particular organisms -> in a particular organism
Page 319, line 6: LSH wants similar items to recieve the exact same hash code
recieve --> receive
(*) Page 320 node-ink diagrams -> node-link diagrams
Page 321 the the adjacency matrix -> the adjacency matrix
Page 321, line 7: like eigenvalue or singular value decomposition (see Section 8.5) on the the
the the --> the (duplicate)
Page 323, line -4: people do not see that a distance or similarity matrix is really just a graph than can take advantage of other tools.
"than" -> "that"
Page 323 dense graphs have a quadratic number of edges -> dense graphs have a number of edges that grows quadratically with the number of vertices
Page 325, line 21: The Pagerank formula has a long dash in out-degree, should be \text{out-degree}
Page 328, line -5: records in a (say) a hundred distinct subsets each ordered by similarity
in a --> into
Page 328, line -2: more accurate on this restricted class of items then a general model trained over all items.
then --> than
Page 332, line -3: sometimes called the k-mediods algorithm
mediod --> medoid
Page 333, line 17: k-means can proceed by reading the distances off this matrix.
off --> off of
Page 335 number of true sources -> the number of true sources
Page 336 cultural/ethic groupings -> cultural/ethnic groupings
Page 336, Figure 10.17 -- this figure is much too low resolution and blurry. Sorry.
Page 338 Identifying the right position -> Identifying the correct position
Page 339 Figure 10.20 on right -> on the right
Page 339 is tree drawn -> is the tree drawn
Page 340 this is the criteria -> this is the criterion
Page 340, line -11: point in each cluster (medioid) as a representative in the general case
medioid --> medoid
Page 340, line -4, "... with using the fastest algorithm ," extra space between 'algorithm' and ','
Page 341, line -12: where I asked asked how many clusters
asked asked --> asked (duplicate)
Page 342 reflecting the similar of -> reflecting the similarity of
Page 345 much better soon as -> much better as soon as
(*) Page 346 Problem 10-4: angular distance is a distance metric -> angular distance is a distance metric for unit-length vectors
Page 346 Problem 10.11 (a): "Might is possible this classifier" should be "Might it be possible that this classifier"
Page 349 10-31: How can you ... of the data. Should end with a question mark instead of period
Page 353 training test -> training set
Page 354 P(X) -> p(X) [2 occurrences]
Page 354, first equation (line 13): $P(B)$ should be $p(B)$.
Page 357 the frequency all outcomes -> the frequency of all outcomes
Page 358 faction of the examples -> fraction of the examples
Page 360 the complete set of observations of $x_i$ are -> the complete set of observations of $x_i$ is
Page 360 This criteria -> This criterion
Page 360, line 4: $t \in (10.5, 11.5, 17)$ might be clearer as $t \in (10.5, 12.5, 17)$, since (11 + 14) / 2 = 12.5
Page 363 equality dictates -> fairness dictates
(*) Page 365 $C_1$ if $x_i ≥ t_i$ -> $C_1$ if $x_i < t_i$
Page 367 This a natural objective -> This is a natural objective
Page 369 The optimization algorithm of efficient solvers -> The optimization algorithms of efficient solvers
(*) Page 369, line 6: repeated equations, one should be equal to -1 the other to 1
Page 371, line -6: "more that d steps" should be "more than d steps"
Page 373, paragraph 4, line 5: "... and F[i, j] reflects ... times work i ..." work -> word
Page 373 represent genuine phenomenon -> represent genuine phenomena
Page 375 a large corpora -> a large corpus
Page 376 and, if so, replace them -> and, if there are, replace them
Page 377 comes down to quality of -> comes down to the quality of
Page 378 the full weight of these networks are -> the full weight of these networks is
Page 378 split out -> spit out
Page 378 The value actually passed to y is the -> The value actually passed to y is
(*) Page 382 The ReLU function remains differentiable -> The ReLU function remains differentiable except at x=0
Page 384 the number of documents in corpus -> the number of documents in the corpus
Page 386 training text be that would -> training text that would
Page 389 a large text corpora -> a large text corpus
Page 389 11-14 What are some ... from traditional machine learning
No punctuation at end, should have question mark
(*) Page 403 second display equation, V(a) = -> \frac{n-1}{n} V(A) = [the RHS is equal to the “divide by n” formula of sample variance, not the “divide by n-1” formula]
Page 406 the chances of such phenomenon -> the chances of such a phenomenon
Page 413 a largest piece that is often substantially higher -> a largest piece whose size is often substantially greater
Page 419 line 7, Chapter notes: Rajarman -> Rajaraman
Page 424 Be aware -> Beware