INPUT OUTPUT

**Problem:**
What point *p = (p_z,...,p_n)* maximizes (or equivallently minimizes)
the function *f*?

**Excerpt from**
The Algorithm Design Manual:
Optimization arises whenever there is an objective function that must be tuned for optimal performance.
Suppose we are building a program to identify good stocks to invest in. We have available certain financial data
to analyze, such as the price-earnings ratio, the interest and inflation rates, and the stock price, all as a function
of time *t*. The key question is how much weight we should give to each of these factors, where these
weights correspond to coefficents of a formula:

Unconstrained optimization problems also arise in scientific computation. Physical systems from protein structures to particles naturally seek to minimize their ``energy functions.'' Thus programs that attempt to simulate nature often define energy potential functions for the possible configurations of objects and then take as the ultimate configuration the one that minimizes this potential.

Foundations of Genetic Programming by W. Langdon and R. Poli | How to Solve it: Modern Heuristics by Z. Michalewicz and D. Fogel | Local Search in Combinatorial Optimization by E. Aarts and J. K. Lenstra |

Numerical methods and analysis by J. Buchanan and P. Turner | Practical Methods of Optimization: Unconstrained Optimization by R. Fletcher | Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems by J. H. Holland |

Algorithms for minimization without derivatives by R. Brent |

This page last modified on 2008-07-10 . www.algorist.com